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The uphill struggle - IRONMAN's decision to move away from Kona.

Updated: Dec 9, 2022

Gustav Iden at the IRONMAN World Championships in Kona, Hawaii

Hawaii - famous for its volcanic landscape, surfing hot spots and of course home to the IRONMAN Triathlon World Championships. Since 1978, the competition has been held annually in Hawaii (with the exception of 2020 & 2021 due to COVID) originating as a 2 day event covering the Waikiki Roughwater swim (3.86km), the Around-Oahu Bike Race (185km) and the Honolulu Marathon (42.195 km). Popularisation led to a move to the Big Island and a new home in the bay of Kailua-Kona.

With so much history of the sport carved into the island’s volcanic rock it seems like an impossible choice to move the championship away from such an iconic location. In recent weeks, IRONMAN announced that the 2023 World Championships will be held at two separate venues. The women’s championships will remain in Kona while the men’s race is set to be held elsewhere on a separate day. Whilst the official 2023 men’s World Championships course is yet to be confirmed, industry professionals have touted Nice, France as the heavy favourite as host.

The current IRONMAN Nice course boasts an ocean swim, an exceptionally hilly and technical bike course and a flat promenade run. With that in mind, we spoke with our Lead R & D Engineer , Jordan Bolland to find out how competitors' aerodynamics will be impacted on a much hillier course like Nice.

What impact does riding uphill have on aerodynamics?

A good starting point when you want to begin to determine how environmental conditions can impact cycling performance is to fully understand what the rider (and bike) are up against and need to overcome. Once you know the forces involved you should start to be able to quantify how much of an impact each one has on performance. There are three main forces a cyclists has to overcome:

  1. Drag force (usually depicted as Fd)

  2. Rolling resistance/friction (usually depicted as Fr)

  3. Gravity (usually depicted as g)

When specifically looking at the aerodynamic component of above it is also worth noting how the Fd is calculated:


Fd = Drag Force

p = Density of Fluid

v = Velocity

Cd = The Drag Coefficient

A = The reference area

So from this equation you can see velocity (speed in a given direction) will indeed have an influence on the drag force. The relationship is actually exponential, meaning the velocity of the cyclist has a huge impact on the drag force.

In terms of tucking in and reaping the aero rewards, at slower speeds these rewards are of diminishing return. There's the flip side, when going downhill, minor positional changes can have a huge effect on the rider's speed.